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美国机器人发展规划 2013版( 137页)

2014-2-27 点击:

A Roadmap for U.S. Robotics From Internet to Robotics

2013 Edition

Table of Contents

Overview

Robotics as a Key Economic Enabler ...1

Roadmap Results: Summary of Major Findings ............2

Area Specific Conclusions ......3

Further Information ...............4

Chapter 1

Roadmap for Robotics in Manufacturing ..........7

Executive Summary ................7

1. Introduction...........8

2. Strategic Importance of Robotics in Manufacturing .............8

2.1 Economic Impetus.............8

2.2 Growth Areas......10

2.3 “Consumerization” of Robotics ....10

2.4 A Vision for Manufacturing..........11

3. Research Roadmap............12

3.1 The Process..........12

3.2 Robotics and Manufacturing Vignettes .....12

3.3 Critical Capabilities for Manufacturing .....13

4. Research and Development: Promising Directions ..............19

4.1 Learning and Adaptation ...............19

4.2 Modeling, Analysis, Simulation, and Control..........19

4.3 Formal Methods...............20

4.4 Control and Planning......20

4.5 Perception ..........20

4.6 Novel Mechanisms and High-Performance Actuators.........21

ii A Roadmap for U.S. Robotics—From Internet to Robotics (2013)

4.7 Human-Robot Interaction.............21

4.8 Architecture and Representations..............21

4.9 Measurement Science ....22

4.10 “Cloud” Robotics and Automation for Manufacturing.......22

5. References............23

6. Contributors ........25

Chapter 2

Roadmap for Healthcare and Medical Robotics.............27

Motivation and Scope ...........27

Participants..............27

Workshop Findings ..............28

1. Introduction.........28

1.1 Definition of the Field/Domain ....28

1.2 Societal Drivers ................29

2. Strategic Findings .............31

2.1 Surgical and Interventional Robotics .........31

2.2 Robotic Replacement of Diminished/Lost Function............32

2.3 Robot Assisted Recovery and Rehabilitation ...........33

2.4 Behavioral Therapy ..........34

2.5 Personalized Care for Special Needs Populations ................34

2.6 Wellness/Health Promotion .........35

3. Key Challenges and Capabilities....36

3.1 Motivating Exemplar Scenarios....36

3.2 Capabilities Roadmap......38

3.3 Deployment Issues ...........53

4. Basic Research/Technologies ........54

4.1 Architecture and Representations ..............54

4.2 Formal Methods ...............54

4.3 Control and Planning ......54

4.4 Perception...........55

4.5 Robust, High-Fidelity Sensors ......56

4.6 Novel Mechanisms and High-Performance Actuators.........57

4.7 Learning and Adaptation...............57

4.8 Physical Human-Robot Interaction ...........58

4.9 Interaction Algorithms for Socially Assistive Robots ...........58

4.10 Modeling, Simulation, and Analysis ........58

5. Roadmap Process..............60

6. Contributors ........61

Chapter 3

A Roadmap for Service Robotics......63

1. Introduction.........63

2. Strategic Findings.............64

2.1 Principal Markets and Drivers ......65

2.2 Near-Term Opportunities and Factors Affecting Commercialization...........66

2.3 Scientific and Technical Challenges...........67

3. Key Challenges/Capabilities ..........73

3.1 Motivating Scenarios .......73

3.2 Capabilities Roadmap......76

4. Basic Research and Technologies ...............84

4.1 Architecture and Representations..............84

4.2 Control and Planning ......84

4.3 Perception...........85

4.4 Robust, High-Fidelity Sensors......85

4.5 Novel Mechanisms and High-Performance Actuators.........85

4.6 Learning and Adaptation ..............86

4.7 Physical Human-Robot Interaction ...........86

4.8 Socially Interactive Robots ...........86

5. Contributors ........87

Chapter 4

Roadmap for Robot Applications in Space......89

1. Strategic Importance & Impact of Space Robotics................89

1.1 Overview..............89

1.2 Co-Explorer Space Robotics Vignettes ......90

2. Critical Capabilities for Co-Explorer Space Robotics...........93

2.1 Object Recognition and Pose Estimation ................93

2.2 Fusing Vision, Tactile, and Force Control for Manipulation .............93

2.3 Achieving Humanlike Performance for Piloting Vehicles ...94

2.4 Access to Extreme Terrain in Zero, Micro, and Reduced Gravity .....94

2.5 Grappling and Anchoring to Asteroids and Non-Cooperating Objects..........94

2.6 Exceeding Humanlike Dexterous Manipulation....94

2.7 Full Immersion, Telepresence with Haptic and Multimodal Sensor Feedback ...........94

2.8 Understanding and Expressing Intent Between Humans and Robots..........95

2.9 Verification and Validation (V&V) of Autonomous Systems.............95

2.10 Supervised Autonomy of Force/Contact Tasks Across Time Delay...............95

2.11 Rendezvous, Proximity Operations, and Docking in Extreme Conditions ................95

2.12 Safe Mobile Manipulation for Working With and Near Humans...95

2.13 Envisioned Five-, Ten-, and Fifteen-Year Goals and Milestones .....96

3. Research & Development Areas for Space Robotics .............98

3.1 Sensing & Perception.......98

3.2 Mobility...............98

3.3 Manipulation Technology .............99

3.4 Human-Systems Interaction ......100

3.5 Autonomy ..........101

4. Contributors ......103

Chapter 5

Roadmap for Robot Applications in Defense ...............105

1. Strategic Importance & Impact of Unmanned Systems .....105

1.1 The Future Landscape ....105

1.2 The Role of Unmanned Systems ...............106

1.3 Types of Unmanned Systems ......108

1.4 Vignettes ...........109

2. Critical Capabilities .........113

2.1 Battlespace Awareness .................113

2.2 Force Application ...........114

2.3 Protection .........114

2.4 Logistics ............114

2.5 Homeland Safety, Security, and Inspection ..........115

2.6 Envisioned JCA Unmanned System Goals .............115

3. Technological Challenges .............116

3.1 Interoperability ...............116

3.2 Autonomy ..........118

3.3 Communications............122

3.4 Propulsion & Power........124

3.5 Manned-Unmanned (MUM) Teaming .....125

4. Contributors ......129

......

 

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